“Let's Play a Game of 'Family' and you pretend as my Wife, He said".
"She was six and he was sick…..”
Mahatma Gandhi said “When a women walks in a streets in the midnight, then only it means that we achieved full independence to our country”.
Rape culture is an environment in which it is prevalent as normal and excused in the media and popular culture. It is the only crime in which victim become the accused. There is a question of mentality and identity. Women are an integral part of Indian society. They constitute almost half of the population. The imagination of a society without women is impossible. In spite of it the condition of woman is not satisfactory in the male dominating society. They are facing many problems in today’s era. There are certain stigmas, unprivileged conditions, discriminations, deprivations and various forms of inequalities, violence, sexual harassment and many other wrong practices against them,which make them feel unsafe in the common sphere of life.
Historical Background of the Situation of Women:
Historically, the condition of women had not been the same in various stages of history:
In Vedic period, the women availed the equal rights as of men. They were having the equal opportunities in all the sphere of life as right to education etc. They had got the prestigious position in the study of Vedas. Some women like Ghosha, Apala, Matriyee, Gargee, were even great and eminent scholars. There was no culture or social constant over women. They were free for making selection of their life choices but in the Post Vedic period and in Gupta period, the condition of women was not as it was in Vedic period. They were deprived of being a part in social life and were trodden down. In the coming ages, the plight of women distorted and became miserable. The issues like female foeticide, child marriage, pardahpratha, jauhar, sati were the major problems. The women were confined even in the British period. Some social reform movements took place against the miserable condition of women. Eshwarchand Vidyasagar, Raja Ram Mohan Roy and other reformers fought for the women Several legislations were made to improve the condition of women like:
~Sati prohibition Act (1829)
~Child Marriage Prohibition Act (1929)
~Widow remarriage Act (1856)
~Hindu property inheritance Act (1937)
But Rape is the 4th most common crime in India which is a crime of violence not sex. Basically, another word for sexual harassment and it does not exist. According to the annual statistics of Rape in India, India was not among HEUNI’s worst 28 countries, South Asia was the 3rd safest country in the world. The incidence of rape in the U.K and U.S.A was 1,500% higher than in India.
In 2012, there were almost 24,923 rapes, according to India’s NCRB (National Crime Record Bureau). The dying declaration of the Delhi gang rape victim of 2012 (Nirbhaya case, December 16, 2012).
Conviction rate improves in the year of 2013, data of registration of cases have jumped by over 35% in Delhi, 1,000 rapes reported in Karnataka. 476 cases reported in half of 2014 including 325 cases against minors.
In 2014, gang rape graphics highest in U.P.
A study released by the police commissioner of Delhi that most arrested in rape cases, rape accused of the group age of 18 to 25 years in 2015.
In 2016, India recorded 106 rapes a day. Large number of the girls who raped of 0 to 12 years, offender was known to victims including neighbours, relatives, employer, even family members.
The number of rape cases has dipped further in 2017.
Definitions in Indian Penal Code: Sexual offences are defined under the section 375 to section 376A of the Indian Penal Code.
Section 375: A man is said to commit “Rape” if he-
~Penetrate his penis, to any extent, into vagina, mouth, urethra or anus of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person, or
~Inserts, to any extent, any object or a part of the body, not being the penis, into the vagina, the urethra or anus of a woman or makes her to do so with him owe any other person, or
~Manipulates any part of the body of a woman so as to cause penetration into the vagina, urethra, anus or any part of the body of such woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person, or
~Applies his mouth to the vagina, anus, urethra of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person,
Under the circumstances falling under any of the following seven descriptions:
~Against her will.
~Without her consent.
~With her consent, when her consent has been obtained by putting her or any person in whom she is interested, in fear of death or of hurt.
~With her consent, when the man knows that he is not her husband and that her consent is given because she believes herself to be lawfully married.
~With her consent when, at the time of giving such consent, by reason of unsoundness of mind of intoxication or the administration by him personally or through another of any stupefying or wholesome substance, she is unable to understand the nature and consequences of that to which she given consent.
~With or without her consent, when she is under eighteen years of age.
~When she is unable to communicate consent.
Section 376C says about sexual intercourse by a person in authority:
~In a position of authority or in a fiduciary relationship, or
~A public servant, or
~Superintendent or manager of a jail, remand home or other place of custody established by or under any law for the time being in force, or
~On the management of a hospital or being on the staff of that,
Abuses such position or fiduciary relationship t induce or seduce any woman either in his custody or under his charge or present in the premises to have sexual intercourse with him, such sexual intercourse not amounting offence of rape, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than five years, but which may extend to ten years, and hall also be liable to fine.
Sec 376D talks about Gang rape:
where a woman is raped by one or more persons constituting a group or acting in furtherance of a common intention, each of those persons shall be deemed to have committed the offence of rape and shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than twenty years, but may extend to life mean imprisonment for the reminder of that person’s natural life, and with fine.
Rape culture coined in 20th century. The term rape culture is coined by feminists in the United State in the 1970.
Psychology of Rape:
Dr. Partha Gangopadhyay answered a question: There is nothing which can be branded as typical of a rapist and no particular traits that can help us isolate rapists. Rape is the most extreme form of sexual violence. Research indicates that the presence of disinhibiting factors such as alcohol, illicit drugs and anger have been noted to be associated with extreme acts of violence such as rape.
News 18 asked people ‘why do men rape women?’ The answers are fascinating like Unbridled sexual desire, Sexual frustration, Urge to control, Challenge to established patriarchy, Deep sense of insecurity, Unwilling to accept women who disturb the balance of power, Interestingly clothes, alcohol, drugs and provocation weren’t the popular options as triggers as some of our leaders would have us believe, Delayed and often denial of justice is another reason cited as cause of rapes. News 18 compiled the responses to the survey.
-No legal prostitution.
-Sex and Drugs rackets as well as vulnerable positions of women in our society.
-Because of frustration and lack of humanity in some people.
-Because of our rotten judiciary and police system.
-Because of messed up eastern and western cultures.
-Due to porn movies and tights fitting clothes of women.
-Lack of Education
-Because of lack of fear for punishment.
-Lack of speedy and fair trial.
-Because of lack of fear of God. Spiritual poverty!
-Movies/Pornography display racy content that leads to rapes.
The moral value in our society has gone below, because of illiteracy, Drugs, Alcohol and dress code of women. This is totally due to dirty mentality of human being whether it is a male or female- the advertisement of female as a SEX MATERIAL in the movies which is watched by every age of people because there is no proper teaching in schools to respect women and in academics.
PINK: A bollywood film about India’s ‘rape culture’: A 32-year-old Indian security guard in Australia accused of stalking two women was let off by a court after he argued that Bollywood films had led him to believe that it was “quite normal behavior” for Indian men to obsessively target women. He was being perversely honest. In bollywood movies, the hero will often pursue the heroin with a vengeance. He will stare at her, wolf-whistle and stalk her relentlessly. Spurned lovers will chase and harass women. A critic once wrote that the Bollywood stalker had evolved from a “nominal villain to an outright hero”. A new Bollywood film, Pink, challenges many of the industry’s cringe-worthy, misogynistic tropes including stalking and rape threats as romantic moves. The film, directed by Aniruddha Roy Chowdhury, revolves around three young women who are flat mates in the capital, Delhi, which is also one of India’s most unsafe cities for women. “A woman’s no means no, be it a sex worker, a casual acquaintance or even a wife,” Bachchan tells the court. This dialogue has been repeated on social media threads, with many women endorsing it.
Teach her a lesson: While Minal (played by Taapsee Pannu) is from Delhi, her mates are Falak, a Muslim from Lucknow, and Andrea, who is from to Meghalaya in the north-east of India. The film is then played out as a courtroom drama that shows how Indian women often keep away reaching out to police or the courts for hell, fearing the shame they could be further subjected to.
Response to atrocities: The times of India said “Pink is a powerful statement on the existing feudal mindset of a majority of India”. And The Guardian called it “a naturalistic drama that forms a serious attempt to grapple with India’s rape culture”. “Pink is a protest call to not judge women. A woman who drinks, parties and has male friends over to her house is branded as a ‘woman of low character’. A democratic society must be intolerant to a culture that brands women like this.”
What’s really behind India’s Rape Crisis:
An Indian woman, within hours of giving birth by C-section, was raped in a hospital near New Delhi. Some in India took consolation in the fact that at least she was not, like Nirbhaya- 23-year-old female physiotherapy intern-beaten up after being raped. A few days later, on Women’s Day, a 15 years-old girl was raped and set on fire. For those who don’t remember, in December 2012, Nirbhaya was beaten with iron rods, gang-raped, and tortured in a private bus while she was travelling with her boyfriend. As a result of an international outrage over her assault and subsequent death, new laws and new fast-track courts were promised. More women are now willing to report rape cases. In India a women is reportedly raped every 15 minutes. Multiply that by 24*7, 365 days a year. And keep in mind the majority of rape cases still go unreported. The statistics on crime against women is even worse: Every 2 minutes, a women in India is a victim of a crime. This ongoing issue with violence against women raises the real and serious question of whether India is truly ready for a seat on the global table?
One explanation for the ongoing rape problem is the skewed sex ratio. Like China, India has a massive imbalance in its sex ratio. According to the Indian census, the sex ratio in the 6 and below age group has risen 102.4 males per 100 females in 1961 (the liberal Nehru days) to 108.9 in 2011 (the Fiery Hindutva Ideology days). The caste system explains the violence against women in India, but to understand the inordinately high number of rapes in India, one needs to dig deeper for answers. In a society where the national narrative conditions people to think that rape has no consequences; where violence has been unleashed by an imbalanced sex ratio; and where women have little or no cultural respect, 37,000 reported rapes per year is not shocking, or even surprising. It is just par for the course.
Bbarbaric Rape Cases from 2017, show that women are still not safe in India:
~Gang rape and threw from train: This is a case of June 16; a 14 years old age girl was raped by six minors, then badly beaten up and thrown from a train. She claims that one of rapist was from her school. She was found unconscious on the railway track.
~Gang raped and brain smashed: On May 09, 23 years old girl was gang raped and her body was found near the industrial model of township, Rohtak. This was not only enough, horror thing was, her skill was smashed with bricks.
~Child abused by uncle: A young girl of eight years old from Kolkata was sexually assaulted by her own uncle not by once at home. Her lawyers proof her assault before the court through her sketched a house, a girl holding balloons attached to the strings, and her dress lying beside her which was filled with “gloomy” colors.
~Mother gang rape and her baby killed: A mother of 19 years old was gang raped by an auto driver and two others in Gurugram’s Manesar. When her baby started crying, three men threw the baby on the road, where baby died.
~Four women gang raped case: This was the case of family where four women gang raped on the Jewar-Bulandshahr road, off the Yamuna Expressway, similar incident of 2016, when two tires of the car were punctured, six men raped 35 years old mother, 14 years old daughter and attacked with rods, knives and pistols.
~Set on fire after rape: On June 19, a college girl of Bihar was allegedly raped and set on fire by her boyfriend inside her own house.
~Abducted from home before rape: A girl of seven years old, sleeping next to her mother was picked up from her house in U.P and raped. Her body was found by village member in pool of blood in field.
~Women gang raped for five hours: A Sikkim women girl of 26 years old raped for five hours by three men in moving car on the Delhi- Gurgaon border.
~A woman raped by another husband and his wife made films: In Telangana, a 38 years old woman was raped by a husband. She claimed that a couple offers her beer and then raped, while his wife filmed such horrendous act for threatened to release the video if she did not participate in their sexual acts.
~Father rapes her own daughter for several months, shameful: A 45 years old man was arrested in the charge of sexually abusing of his minor daughter who later gave a birth to a girl child.
The role of the English-Language Press (Rape Culture in India):
A new paper by Joanna Jolly, Joan Shorenstien Fellow(spring 2016) and former BBC South Asia editor, examines the increased coverage of rape in India’s English-language newspapers following the infamous 2012 gang rape in Delhi, and whether this cooperage led to policy change. Jolly provides recommendations for how the Indian media and the government can work to improve conditions for women, addressing problems that are rooted in patriarchal structures. The paper also highlights the importance of sexual violence reporting in shaping public opinion and policy. A keyword search for or or was conduct in Lexis Nexis in these four newspaper (The times of India, Hindustan times, The Hindu and The Indian Express) for every month between September 15, 2009 and March 15, 2016- exactly 39 months since the Delhi gang rape and 39 months prior to it. Not surprisingly, it reveals a huge spike in rape reporting at the point of the Delhi gang rapeand a significant increase in rape reporting in the 39 months afterwords. The increase is confirmed by interviews with reporters who said it has become far easier to have articles on rape commissioned after December 2012.
Freelance journalist Neha Dixit, who specializes in writing about sexual violence, agrees that the media’s focus on horrific, stranger-rape cases means the issues behind attacks do not need to be addressed. “Statistics show most cases happen in the home school, work environment and we have a very high incident of incest in this country, but nobody wants to question the family and patriarchal structure,” she said “I realized I had my own bias and it had come from years of listening to men say things like ‘how can you convict him, he’s innocent until proved guilty and it’s his word against hers and his word against hers and his word is much more important than hers.’ It’s something you grow up with here and it’s something you internalized quite easily,” said Hindustan Times reported, Avantika Mehta. “I think many reporters share the biases of society –exactly like many police officers. And rape still isn’t something society takes very seriously,” said Praveen Swami.
-Thornhill and Palmer writes that “In short, man can have many children, with little inconvenience to himself; a woman can have only few, and with great effort.” Females therefore tend to be more choosy with partners. Rape is seen as one potential strategy for males for achieving reproductive success.
-Anthropologist Edward H.Hagan states in his Evolutionary Psychology FAQ :
-High status males may have been able to coerce mating with little fear of reprisal.
-Low status women (e.g. orphans) may have been particularly vulnerable to being raped because males need not have feared reprisals from the woman’s family.
-During war, raping enemy women may have had few negative repercussions.
McKibbin et al. (2008) argue that there may be several different types of rapists or rape strategies. One is rape by disadvantaged men who cannot get sex otherwise. Another is “specialized rapist” who are more sexually aroused from rape than from consensual sex. A third type is opportunistic rapists who switch between forced and concensual sex depending on circumstances. A fourth type is psychopathic rapists. A fifth type is partner rape due to sperm competition when the male suspects or knows that the female has had sex with another male.
Rape culture and sexism is globalising India – Kavita Krishnan: In an interview in the 2015 documentary India’s Daughter, directed by Leslie Udwin, Mukesh Singh, one of the men convicted for the 16 December 2012 gang-rape and murder in Delhi, justifies the rape on the grounds that the victim had overstepped the lines of prescribed gender roles and feminine morality. His lawyer echoed the same victim-blaming sentiments, boasting that he would burn his daughter alive if she were to behave in a dishonourable way. These interviews were widely condemned across the globe as expressions of a brutal and uncivilized culture of a rape and honour crimes. The film itself explains such attitudes as products of poverty, deprivation and a culture of masculine privilege in India. When politicians and other powerful figures seek to define “Indian culture” in terms of misogynistic traditions, they are not expressing a pre-existing culture, they are trying to create and craft such a culture. It is a myth told for political purposes.
Judging by the latest rape statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau on November 30, it appears, Rape cases rose by 12.4 per cent in 2016 after a dip between 2014 and 2015.
Thornhill and Palmer (2000) suggests a number of possible strategies for preventing rape. One example is explaining to males that may have predispositions to misread the female invitation of sex. They believe that viewing rape as being due to a desire for domination, and not related to sexual desire, is generally harmful. One example being the claim that the way women dress will not affect the risk of rape. They argue that the much greater societal freedom of dating without supervision, and removal of many barriers between males and females, have created an environment that has also removed many earlier societal controls against rape. It is recommended that “men and women interact only in public places during the early stages of their relationship”.
The 2003 book Evolution, Gender, and Rape, written in response to A Natural History of Rape, compiles the views of twenty-eight scholars in opposition to sociobiological theories of rape. One contributor, Michael Kimmel, criticizes Thornhill and Palmer’s argument that female rape victims tend to be sexually attractive young women, rather than children or older women, contrary to what would be expected if rapists selected victims based on inability to resist. Kimmel argues that younger women are the least likely to be married and the most likely to be out on dates with men, and therefore are the most likely to be raped because of opportunity arising from social exposure and marital status.
Rape it seems to be an embarrassing word for most of the people to hear or talk about. There are many people who think that it is uncomfortable or just don’t like to talk. And this culture leads men and women to believe in certain situation that it is “okay”. No, it’s actually not okay. First of all, one commonly believed myth has to be removed that rape is primarily a sexual act. Women young and old both, could fight off a rapist. But some believes that they tend to be shorter and physically less strong than males, but a recent research found that women are significantly less exhausted after natural, dynamic muscle exercise than men of similar age, even athletic ability too. If a woman chooses to protect herself by force, she can hurt man badly to stop him. Next is, why so many women remain silent after being sexually assaulted instead of taking any steps against rapist? To answer this question is that she will come into the contact of police, hospitals and courts where most of the investigations are done by male police officer himself. And they are subjected to irrelevant and hostile questions. There is no easy answer for the question of emotional needs of the rape victim or how to help a woman trauma experienced by her. Most of the time they are in a state of shock which is more difficult to treat. There must be strategy plan not only of physical training, safety even of education to know more about the matter. Just to see how much students and people already know about it. It can be used as test by distinguish between yes or no.
1. The primary motive of the rape is sex or violence too?
2. Rape occurs only by strangers or by the people well known?
3. Women are raped according the dress usually they wear?
4. Rapists are only one-time offender or repeated offender?
5. Age group of victims are mostly up to 25 years or from 3 months to 90 years?
6 Generally, most of the rape cases not reported to police or yes, it is reported?
7. Rape happens only in the evening, or any time?
8. Woman can fight of her attacker or not?
It can be concluded by saying that if people are more educated about rape, if women decide that they are strong enough to fight from their tough situation and if there is suitable and harsher punishment for the rapists then this may be overcome and would be less problem in India and the worldwide as well.