“Human trafficking is a crime against humanity. We must unite our efforts to free victims and stop this crime that has become ever more aggressive, that threatens not just individuals, but the foundational values of society”

    ………..Pope Francis

Introduction:

The way in which society is developing at global level is that human race has made itself sophisticated in most of the fields but side by side it has also became more and more endangered towards the things with made it to drift towards emergency in terms of its own race. Emergency in sense of anything which violates basic human rights, and exploitation is one such. Exploitation of any type is very grave to handle because it directly infringes human right of an individual or any person world at large, trafficking is one of such exploitation. And when confine ourselves further, then Human Trafficking is at top of the list.Human trafficking is now such a grave issue that it is the most affecting type of crimes committed in respect to the violation of human rights. Nobody across the globe can deny that there are only dubious datas regarding human trafficking, but in reality it is far more than any of the data available. Among all types of exploitation, human trafficking is one which requires the most serious steps as it has become the third “so called popular” crimes in the world. No matter how many organizations are working how much for human rights,but it is only that they pretend that they are going well with the protection of human rights of victims of human trafficking but it is not so. And also one must not forget the first ever roots from where the trafficking emerged as a concern in everybody’s eyes was the first international instrument, Palermo protocol, which was for the criminalization of all acts of trafficking. In broader terms, human trafficking is a situation where one or more person holds the possession of another person for compelled service. The service can be either debt, bondage, slavery, forced labor, sexual exploitation, servitude, forced entertainment, or for medical favors like organ transplant. The limitation of this general definition is that it focuses on the last component of the trafficking chain, that is, destination. It does not implicitly take cognizance of origin and transit portion of the trafficking network. Simplistically, human trafficking can be defined as the acquisition of people by improper means such as force, fraud, or deception, with the aim of exploiting them. Human trafficking does not happen all of a sudden, it’s a process. First traffic is Act, this includes recruiting victims, transporting them to the place where they will be exploited without being noticed by authority and without any knowledge to the other receivers who are traffickers and also sometimes trafficker’s trade in humans within themselves. But question is that why don’t victims make themselves free or say no, it is because of the way traffickers handle them by threatening, forcing them to do things, abducting them, and sometimes by using the lucrative trap of small amount of money.

Impacts of Human Trafficking: The Roots are known

It is very evident to know thwack of human trafficking because its nature is such that there is must to know the major impact of it too. The major problem to determine its impact is lack of legislation, lack of political will, inexperience in dealing with the issue, corruption, victims’ inability or unwillingness to cooperate because of many reasons.[1]While trafficking a type of covert in nature to accurately measure. From the reports of International Labor Organization 400,000 illegal immigrants reach Europe each year, while 850,000 arrive in the US annually (these figures from the report includes those who have paid smugglers, as well as trafficked victims). In 2004, the US government approximated that 600,000-800,000 are trafficked internationally annually, of which 80 percent are female and 50 percent are minors, with 70 percent of females being trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation. It also shows that 2.44 million people are in forced labor worldwide as a result of trafficking (out of an estimated 12.3 million people worldwide in forced bonded labor, child labor, and sexual servitude).[2] It is also clear that everywhere it occurs, the consequences are devastating for victims and the larger community it is such that all society suffers, as well as principles of democratic freedom, principles of democratic society, rule of law and human rights. The scale of trafficking also deals a particular blow to gender equality and particularly women’s rights, presents a strain on law enforcement, and affects security and health systems.[3] In various aspects Human Trafficking has impacts and the manner is very crooked but yes somehow aspects covers a part of its impact. Various aspects are economic, societal, health, gender, human rights, national security, rule of law, etc., in a country and thus impacts on them are serious concern.[4]

Impacts of trafficking in various areas

Economic Impact

One of the reports from US Department of State in 2008 which concerns Trafficking in Persons(TIP)shows a huge loss of remittances to developing countries, because trafficked persons often have to pay off the ‘debt’ they incur for being trafficked (which they may never do).[5] The annual level of remittances to developing countries is an estimated value of US$ 325 billion, the lack of remittances from trafficked victims could imply a loss to development of approximately US$ 60 billion.[6] Additionally, the costs of coercion and exploitation cannot be measured but it is clear that the worst forms of child labor (and by extension trafficking), for instance, represents a loss in productive capacity of a generation of individuals who would have otherwise gained from increased education and improved health.[7]

And if the amount of money which is being spent in order to control trafficking, is successful, then funds that are to be used in future to fight trafficking crimes, may be effectively used towards alternative development initiatives.

Societal Impact

There is a vast impact of trafficking on any particular community or society as a whole and the world at large, and yes this cannot be easily rectified and on the other hand should not be turned a blind eye to. Trafficking undermines extended family ties, and in many cases, the forced absence of women leads to the breakdown of families and neglect of children and the aged. Victims who return to communities often find themselves stigmatized and shunned, and are more likely to become involved in substance abuse and criminal activity.[8]

Children trafficked into forced labor or sexual exploitation have their development as a person ‘irreparably damaged’. Survivors often suffer multiple traumas and psychological problems.

Health impacts

There are significant health impacts for victims both while they are being transported and when they have reached their destination. Perilous journeys expose trafficked victims to injury and even death, while overcrowded and unsanitary conditions, and shortages of food and water increase the risk of spreading infectious disease.

Trafficked persons experience ‘physical, sexual, and emotional violence at the hands of traffickers, pimps, employers, and others. They are also exposed to various workplace, health, and environmental hazards. Individuals trafficked for the sex industry also experience increased risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STIs). Frequently denied the choice to use condoms, sex trafficking victims can introduce HIV to the broader population. Trucking routes served by prostitution rings along trucking routes, can cause HIV/AIDS and other STIs to be spread even more widely, including across international borders. Health effects are not limited only to those trafficked for sexual exploitation. Trafficked workers live and work in overcrowded, unsanitary conditions, with no consideration of safety. These are problems not just for the individual, who may suffer from long-term adverse health, but as such conditions can harbor infectious diseases, wider populations may also be put at risk.[9]

Gender equity and human rights           

The impacts of human trafficking fall disproportionately on women and children, who are the main victims, largely trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation. That this is a billion dollar industry, worldwide, and growing, is a continued expression of unequal power relations that reinforce women’s secondary status in society.  It goes without saying that trafficked victims are stripped of their human rights. Trafficked people are subject to all manner of human rights violations, not least of all the rights to life, liberty and freedom from slavery. Trafficked children are deprived of the right to grow up in a protective environment, and to be free from sexual exploitation and abuse.[10]Less considered are the rights to adequate healthcare, education, a decent work environment, and freedom from discrimination, to name a few.[11]

National security and Rule of law

The profits to be made from human trafficking, a process that often requires the control of the entire migration cycle, attracts large crime syndicates, unlike smuggling, which can be run by small enterprises. Human trafficking is estimated to be the third largest international criminal enterprise, generating an estimated US$9.5 billion annually.[12]Organised criminal groups often combine human trafficking with other types of criminal activities, and its profits fuel other criminal activities, which present huge security threats to countries, such as the drug trade, particularly as some of the trade routes, which they control, are the same.[13]

Human trafficking operations undermine government efforts to exert authority over its territory, threatening the security of vulnerable populations. Many governments are unable to protect women and children who are kidnapped from their homes and schools or from refugee camps. Moreover, the bribes paid by traffickers impede a government’s ability to battle corruption among law enforcement, immigration, and judicial officials.[14]

Women Trafficking: A Major Concern

Across the world the major impact of human trafficking is on women. Out of population of 7,601,518,491, there are 3,767,253,014 women. The persons who are trafficked, there number is 24.9 million, and among them 17.9 million are women and girls. Trafficking in women is not a new phenomenon, but in the recent decades, it has emerged as a grave and serious problem. Nevertheless what are the works of the various organizations but the level of seriousness which it needs, is still lagging behind. Whether a girl of age 14 or a woman of age 22, the way traffickers trap them in the industry of human trafficking is the far beyond our scope of imagination. The child which was to study in a school was forced into the body business and the women who was to be at work in her office, is now somewhere struggling with Madam of brothel to return her home. Once women and girls become involved in the sex trafficking industry, it becomes very difficult for them to escape. Victims may face legal barriers, where the traffickers will confiscate or sequester all forms of immigration and citizenry documentation. Language barriers, fear, limited knowledge, and lack of money are other barriers that women and girls may face to prevent them from escaping the sex trafficking ring. In many parts of the world, legacy prostitution, or the involuntary enslavement of future generations of girls in the sex trafficking industry, becomes an expected societal norm. Now women trafficking has become such a major concern that almost every country in the world is contaminated by this. In United States of America the average age of a girl entering prostitution is 12-14 years, they are made hostages and one can never say that they are walking side by side us, and one of the sole reasons of them being involved in this is Human Trafficking. Traffickers sold young girls and women to the pimps to earn and due to high demand of this they are getting extra money. In Middle East there are many cases in which trafficking is done in a very different way, women are first trafficked and then sold to competent buyers who then keep them as maid and exploit them to their last breath. The scenario of South Africa in this very respect is very different, in every 3 minutes a girl is being raped there. Consider this as irony or whatever but this is the harsh reality, the source at there is also trafficking up to some extent.


Also Read: Women at Sale in India


Basic Measures that can be taken to stop human trafficking-

  • First of all it is necessary to know the indicators of human trafficking so one can help identify a potential trafficking victim. Human trafficking awareness training is available for individuals, businesses, first responders, law enforcement, educators, and federal employees, among others.
  • Trafficking victims, including undocumented individuals, are eligible for services and immigration assistance.
  • When one is vigilant and can volunteer and support anti-trafficking efforts in his/her community at that very time it becomes easy to reduce it.
  • Meet with and/or write to your local, state, and federal government representatives to let them know you care about combating human trafficking, and ask what they are doing to address it.
  • Host an awareness-raising event to watch and discuss films about human trafficking. For example, learn how modern slavery exists today; watch an investigative documentary about sex trafficking; or discover how human trafficking can affect global food supply chains.
  • By donating the proceeds to an anti-trafficking organization.
  • Encourage your local schools to partner with students and include modern slavery in their curricula. As a parent, educator, or school administrator, be aware of how traffickers target school-aged children.
  • Be well-informed. Set up a web alert to receive current human trafficking news. Become familiar with public awareness materials available from the Department of Health.
  • Work with a local religious community or congregation to help stop trafficking by supporting a victim service provider or spreading awareness of human trafficking.
  • Businesses: Provide jobs, internships, skills training, and other opportunities to trafficking survivors.
  • Students: Take action on your campus. Join or establish a university club to raise awareness about human trafficking and initiate action throughout your local community. Request that human trafficking be included in university curricula.
  • Health Care Providers: Learn how to identify the indicators of human trafficking and assist victims. With assistance from anti-trafficking organizations, extend low-cost or free services to human trafficking victims.
  • Journalists: The media plays an enormous role in shaping perceptions and guiding the public conversation about human trafficking.
  • Attorneys: Offer human trafficking victims legal services, including support for those seeking benefits or special immigration status.

Constitutional and legislative provisions related to Trafficking in India-

The role played by Constitutional and legislative measures are very crucial and thus there are various provisions related to human trafficking, and they are as follows:

  • Trafficking in Human Beings or Persons is prohibited under the Constitution of India under Article 23 (1).
  • The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 (ITPA) is the premier legislation for prevention of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.
  • Criminal Law (amendment) Act 2013 has come into force wherein Section 370 of the Indian Penal Code has been substituted with Section 370 and 370A IPC which provide for comprehensive measures to counter the menace of human trafficking including trafficking of children for exploitation in any form including physical exploitation or any form of sexual exploitation, slavery, servitude, or the forced removal of organs.
  • Protection of Children from Sexual offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which has come into effect from 14th November, 2012 is a special law to protect children from sexual abuse and exploitation. It provides precise definitions for different forms of sexual abuse, including penetrative and non-penetrative sexual assault, sexual harassment.
  • There are other specific legislations enacted relating to trafficking in women and children Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006, Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act, 1976, Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994, apart from specific Sections in the IPC, e.g. Sections 372 and 373 dealing with selling and buying of girls for the purpose of prostitution.
  • State Governments have also enacted specific legislations to deal with the issue. (E.g. The Punjab Prevention of Human Smuggling Act, 2012).

With a view to tackle the menace of human trafficking, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India has undertaken a number of measures such as:

˗Administrative measures and interventions includes Anti Trafficking Cell (ATC).

 Anti-Trafficking Nodal Cell was set up in the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) in 2006 to act as a focal point for communicating various decisions and follow up on action taken by the State Governments to combat the crime of Human Trafficking. MHA conducts coordination meetings with the Nodal Officers of Anti Human Trafficking Units nominated in all States/UTs periodically.

  • Ministry of Home Affairs' scheme: Under a Comprehensive Scheme Strengthening law enforcement response in India against Trafficking in Persons through Training and Capacity Building, has released fund for establishment of Anti Human Trafficking Units for 270 districts of the country.
  • Strengthening the capacity building: To enhance the capacity building of law enforcement agencies and generate awareness among them, various Training of Trainers (TOT) workshops on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings for Police officers and for Prosecutors at Regional level, State level and District level were held throughout the country.
  • Judicial Colloquium: In order to train and sensitize the trial court judicial officers, Judicial Colloquium on human trafficking are held at the High court level. The aim is to sensitize the judicial officers about the various issues concerning human trafficking and to ensure speedy court process. So far, eleven Judicial Colloquiums have been held at Chandigarh, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Odisha.

 

One of the most important steps taken by the authorities in is thatIndia implemented International Conventions on Trafficking:

India has ratified the United Nations Convention on Transnational Organized Crime (UNCTOC) which has as one of its Protocols Prevention, Suppression and Punishment of Trafficking in Persons, particularly Women and Children. Various actions have been taken to implement the convention and as per Protocol, Criminal Law Amendment Act, 2013 has been enacted, wherein human trafficking has specifically been defined. Also the SAARC Convention in which India has ratified the SAARC Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution. A Regional Task Force was constituted to implement the SAARC Convention. Five meetings of Regional Task Force have been held so far. Fifth meeting was held at Paro, Bhutan from 11-12 April, 2013. As offered in Fifth Meeting, a study tour for SAARC Member countries was conducted from 18-22 November, 2013 to learn from the experiences of the Anti-Human Trafficking Units (AHTUs) established in various districts of the country. Representatives of Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Afghanistan participated in the study tour. Also Bilateral mechanism which deals with cross border trafficking and to address the various issues relating to prevention of Trafficking, victim identification and repatriation and make the process speedy and victim-friendly between India and Bangladesh, a Task Force of India and Bangladesh was constituted. So far five meetings of Task force between India and Bangladesh have been held. Fifth meeting was held on 17-18 August, 2015 at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

 

Conclusion

What anybody can do when it comes about the influence of dangerous predator pimps on most of the women. At one place or the other, pimps openly collect the cash their women work tirelessly to make money for them, and when they fail to earn enough, the consequences are horrific in nature. Sometimes mothers are prostituted side by side with their teenage daughters. Globally, the impact of trafficking is such that it can be seen, a mother waiting in her car as she prostitutes her two daughters. Most of the times Police is also aware of the problem, but without witnessing an actual case of trafficking in front, no police can say anything rather they are often helpless to do much more than make their presence known.

It cannot be denied that the pace which human trafficking has gained is very much alarming in nature and most important thing is that strong measures must be there to curb this impact and so called vast impact of this curse from the society.

 


[1] Freida M’Cormack, the impact  of human trafficking on people and countries, GSRDC,(April 9,2018;10:23 A.M.) http://gsdrc.org/publications/the-impact-of-human-trafficking-on-people-and-countries/

[2]Anonymous,Human trafficking, ILO, (April 9,2018;11:03 A.M.), http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced-labour/lang--en/index.htm

[3] Danailova-Trainor and Laczko 2010

[4] Supranote1

[5] US Department of State, 2008(April 9,2018,11:22A.M.), https://definitions.uslegal.com/m/municipal-law/

[6] Supranote5

[7] Supranote6

[8] US Department of State, 2011 (April 9,2018,11:22A.M.), https://definitions.uslegal.com/m/municipal-law/

[9] Jonathan Todres, human trafficking,2011, (April,11,2018; 8:32 P.M) http://jonathantodres.com/human-trafficking/

[10] Supranote6

[11] Jonathan Todres, human trafficking,2006, (April,11,2018; 10:32 P.M) http://jonathantodres.com/human-trafficking/

[12]US Department of State, 2011 (April 9,2018,3:26 P.M.), https://definitions.uslegal.com/m/municipal-law/       

[13]US Department of State, 2003 (April 9,2018,4:49 P.M.), https://definitions.uslegal.com/m/municipal-law/

[14]US Department of State, 2011 (April 9,2018,5:29 P.M.), https://definitions.uslegal.com/m/municipal-law/

[15]Anonymous, women trafficking menace in assam, (April, 12,2018,08:06 A.M.)https://www.northeasttoday.in/women-trafficking-menace-in-assam/